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For decades, researchers have worked extensively in the area of congestion control for packet-switched networks. Many proposed solutions take advantage of the congestion-control mechanism in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and these approaches work well for networks that have heavy TCP traffic. However, these approaches are not universally effective - they fail completely for protocols that do not implement congestion-control mechanisms. In particular, these approaches do not work with the User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Real-time media-streaming technologies such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) and video conferencing use UDP and therefore do not respond well to existing congestion-avoidance techniques.
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