Adaptive Security of Concurrent Non-Malleable Zero-Knowledge

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Executive Summary

A zero-knowledge protocol allows a prover to convince a verifier of the correctness of a statement without disclosing any other information to the verifier. It is a basic tool and widely used in many other cryptographic applications. However, when stand-alone zero-knowledge protocols are used in complex environments, e.g., the Internet, the basic properties may not be sufficient. This is why researchers considered security of zero-knowledge protocols under concurrent composition and man-in-the-middle attacks. Moreover, it is very likely that an adversary might break computers that run the protocol and get internal information of the parties.

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