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Several Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks with the objective of minimizing energy consumption. For example, Sensor-MAC (S-MAC) was proposed to reduce energy consumption by introducing a duty cycle. Under variable traffic load, the fixed duty cycle of S-MAC results in energy loss due to idle listening along with higher latency and lower throughput compared to an adaptive duty cycle. Timeout-MAC (T-MAC) introduced such an adaptive duty cycle to handle variable traffic loads. However, nodes that do not take part in data exchange waste energy because of continuous renewal of their timeout values.
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