Date Added: Oct 2011
In this paper, the authors propose an algorithm to detect a chain of cooperative malicious node in ad-hoc network that disrupts transmission of data by feeding wrong routing information along with the detection algorithm. They also propose a mechanism to detect and remove the black and gray hole attacks. Their technique is based on sending data in terms of equal but small sized blocks instead of sending whole of data in one continuous stream. The flow of message is monitored independently at the neighborhood of both source and destination. The result of monitoring is gathered by a backbone network of trusted nodes.