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The authors examine the impact of three "Criteria" air pollutants on infant health in New Jersey in the 1990s by combining information about mother's residential location from birth certificates with information from air quality monitors. In addition to large sample size, the work offers three important innovations: First, because they know the exact addresses of mothers, they select those mothers closest to air monitors to ensure a more accurate measure of air quality. Second, since they follow mothers over time, they control for unobserved characteristics of mothers using maternal fixed effects. Third, they examine interactions of air pollution with smoking and other predictors of poor infant health outcomes.
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