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This paper presents Eve, a new Execute-Verify architecture that allows state machine replication to scale to multi-core servers. Eve departs from the traditional agree-execute architecture of state machine replication: replicas first execute groups of requests concurrently and then verify that they can reach agreement on a state and output produced by a correct replica; if they cannot, they roll back and execute the requests sequentially. Eve minimizes divergence using application-specific criteria to organize requests into groups of requests that are unlikely to interfere. The authors' evaluation suggests that Eve's unique ability to combine execution independence with nondetermistic interleaving of requests enables high-performance replication for multi-core servers while tolerating a wide range of faults, including elusive concurrency bugs.
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