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A Mobile Ad Hoc NETwork (MANET) is usually assumed to be homogeneous, where each mobile node shares the same radio capacity. However, a homogeneous ad hoc network suffers from poor scalability. Recent research has demonstrated its performance bottleneck both theoretically and through simulation experiments and testbed measurement. Building a physically hierarchical ad hoc network is a very promising way to achieve good scalability. In this paper, the authors present a design methodology to build a hierarchical large-scale ad hoc network using different types of radio capabilities at different layers. In such a structure, nodes are first dynamically grouped into multihop clusters. Each group elects a cluster-head to be a Backbone Node (BN).
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