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In wireless sensor networks and ad hoc networks, energy uses are in many cases the most important constraint since it corresponds directly to operational lifetime. It's due to their remoteness; it makes inability to resupply power to these energy-constrained devices. Therefore to extend a wireless sensor network's effectiveness, the lifetime of the network must be increased by making them as energy efficient as possible. An energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) and routing protocol can maximize the whole network lifetime. This paper focuses on a protocol stack solution that deals with MAC layer and Network layer, which minimizes the energy consumption and delay required to transmit packets across the network.
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