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The authors propose an Energy-aware Maximal Leaf Nodes Data Gathering (EMLN-DG) algorithm for periodic data collection and transmission in wireless sensor networks. For each round of data gathering, an EMLNDG tree spanning the entire sensor network is formed based on the residual energy level available at the nodes and the number of uncovered neighbors of a node during tree formation. Only nodes that have a relatively larger number of neighbors as well as a higher energy level are included as intermediate nodes in the EMLN-DG tree.
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