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The second order loadflow technique defined in rectangular coordinates has become attractive because of the large amount of computation required in the evaluation of polar trigonometric functions in conventional loadflow methods. Seven versions of the second - order loadflow technique are developed and their convergence characteristics and computing times determined with tests carried out on the IEEE 14 and 30 bus networks. It is suggested that the version based on the convergence characteristics and computing time approach (CRIC), warrants further development into optimal power flows and automatic contingency selection algorithms or real-time control.
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