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The authors present a set of five axioms for fairness measures in resource allocation. A family of fairness measures satisfying the axioms is constructed. Well-known notions such as ?-fairness, Jain's index, and entropy are shown to be special cases. Properties of fairness measures satisfying the axioms are proven, including Schur-concavity. Among the engineering implications is a generalized Jain's index that tunes the resolution of the fairness measure, a new understanding of ? -fair utility functions, and an interpretation of "Larger ? is more fair". They also construct an alternative set of four axioms to capture efficiency objectives and feasibility constraints.
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