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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) represent a new paradigm shift in Adhoc networks. Wireless Sensor Networks consists of small nodes with sensing, computation and communication capabilities. The sensor networks task is to sense the environment, and relay the information back to a remote base station, where the user can access it. Sensor nodes are deployed in a monitoring region to gather information on environments like temperature, humidity, position, sound etc. Many routing protocols have been specifically designed for Wireless Sensor Networks where energy awareness is an essential design issue. Overall, the routing techniques are classified into three categories based on the underlying network structure: flat, hierarchical and location based routing. Energy Conservation is the major issue in distributed wireless sensor network.
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