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Transmission control protocol has been adapted to various types of wireless networks (e.g., IEEE 802.11 WLAN, 3G cellular and ad hoc networks). However, wireless transmission control protocol flows are much shorter than wired flows due to the time varying characteristics of wireless networks. Hence, transmission control protocol performance in these networks is determined by the start up effects such as connection establishment. Several analytical models were proposed to describe the steady-state behaviour of short-lived transmission control protocol flows in wired networks, while few similar studies targeted wireless networks. Moreover, almost all of the previous models did not investigate the effect of heterogeneity (e.g., link speed and segment loss probability) of wireless networks on the end-to-end performance of transmission control protocol flows.
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