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Assessing the trustworthiness of sensor data and transmitters of this data is critical for quality assurance. Trust evaluation frameworks utilize data provenance along with the sensed data values to compute the trustworthiness of each data item. However, in a sizeable multi-hop sensor network, provenance information requires a large and variable number of bits in each packet, resulting in high energy dissipation due to the extended period of radio communication, and making trust systems unusable. The authors propose energy-efficient provenance encoding and construction schemes, which they refer to as Probabilistic Provenance Flow (PPF). To the best of their knowledge, their is the first work to make the Probabilistic Packet Marking (PPM) approach for IP trace-back feasible for sensor networks.
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