An Energy Efficient Hole Detour Scheme Using Probability Based on Virtual Position in WSNs
Holes are generated due to limited precision of deployment, and thus bypassing holes is one important issue of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In existing routing schemes using an optimal path, intermediate nodes in the path may deplete their energy quickly, which results in expansion of holes. The Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm solves this problem by balancing the traffic of data transmitted in the optimal path with transition probability. Ant Colony optimization based Location aware Routing (ACLR) is a hole detour scheme that uses nodes residual energy in transition probability to route data packets in a more energy-efficient way.