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Clustering provides an effective method for improving the performance of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In this paper, the authors study that different number of clusters leads to different network performance on the energy consumption, energy balancing and network lifetime. They propose an Energy-Efficient Multi-hop Hierarchical Routing Protocol (MHRP) for wireless sensor networks to enhance the network lifetime and avoid the formation of energy holes. MHRP is a hierarchical routing protocol which selects sensor nodes with criterion of residual energy level to act as cluster heads and establish intra-cluster multi-hop routing based on the trade-off between the two criteria of residual energy level and distance.
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