An Evaluation of Static Java Bytecode Watermarking
The rise in the use of the Internet and bytecode languages such as Java bytecode and Microsoft's Common Intermediate Language have made copying, decompiling and disassembling software easier. The global revenue loss due to software piracy was estimated to be more than $50 billion in 2008. Watermarking is a technique which attempts to protect software by inserting copyright notices or unique identifiers into software to prove ownership. The authors evaluate the existing Java static watermarking systems and algorithms by using them to watermark bytecode files and then applying distortive attacks to each watermarked program by obfuscating and optimising.