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Student learning, the primary outcome of the education process, is another important measure of quality. Learning among elementary and secondary students is monitored at the national level through the achievement test known as the National Assessment of Educational Progress. Trend data suggests that achievement growth among students has stagnated despite the fact that "Real spending per student more than tripled between 1960 and 1995." This pattern coupled with a widening achievement gap between white and minority students helped policymakers turn their focus on educational inputs as measures of quality to a focus on outcomes.
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