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Quantum cryptography is based on the use of subatomic particles (photons) and their intrinsic quantum properties (photon polarization) to develop an unbreakable system. It is not possible to measure the quantum state of any system without affecting the system. This property provides secure transmission of key between sender and receiver. Quantum cryptography is a way to combine the relative ease and convenience of key exchange in public key cryptography with the ultimate security of a one-time pad. Quantum techniques for key distribution, the classically impossible task of distributing secret information over an insecure channel whose transmissions are subject to inspection by an eavesdropper, between parties who share no secret key initially.
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