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In this paper, the authors study the performance of Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) over underwater acoustic multipath channels with different Doppler scales on different paths. They first derive an exact Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) expression after incorporating the compensation of non-uniform Doppler shifts across OFDM subcarriers. Based on the assumption that the residual ICI is dominantly from immediate neighbors, they suggest a practical design that divides subcarriers into groups, where each group of eight subcarriers consists of three contiguous data subcarriers, one pilot subcarrier, and five carefully spaced null subcarriers.
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