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Eventual consistency of replicated data supports concurrent updates, reduces latency and improves fault tolerance, but forgoes strong consistency. Accordingly, several cloud computing platforms implement eventually-consistent data types. The set is a widespread and useful abstraction, and many replicated set designs have been proposed. The authors present a reasoning abstraction, permutation equivalence, that systematizes the characterization of the expected concurrency semantics of concurrent types. Under this framework they present one of the existing conflict-free replicated data types, Observed-Remove Set. Furthermore, in order to decrease the size of meta-data, they propose a new optimization to avoid tombstones. This approach that can be transposed to other data types, such as maps, graphs or sequences.
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