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This paper analyses and explains from the systems point of view, Microprocessor Based Protective Relay (MBPR) systems with emphasis on differential equation algorithms. Presently, the application of protective relaying in power systems, using MBPR systems, based on the differential equation algorithm is valued more than the protection relaying based on any other type of algorithm, because of advantages in accuracy and implementation. MBPR differential equation approach can tolerate some errors caused by power system abnormality such as DC offset. This paper shows that the algorithm is a system description based and it is immune from distortions such as DC-offset. Differential equation algorithms implemented in MBPR are widely used in the protection of transmission and distribution lines, transformers, buses, motors, etc.
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