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The authors derive a closed form formula of SNR penalty induced by Polarization Dependent Loss (PDL) in optically amplified optical fiber dual-polarization systems by employing perturbation analysis based on the reversed channel model. The SNR penalty in dB of each polarization tributary is Gaussian distributed where the mean and standard deviation are determined by the longitudinal distribution profiles of PDL and noise as well as the accumulated PDL value. The simulation verifies the proposed theory under various transmission link configurations.
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