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In a typical macrocell network, all macrocell Mobile Stations (mMSs) are synchronized to the Macrocell Base Station (mBS) during the uplink. The mMSs that are closer to the mBS transmit their signals at a later time instant so that signals of the all mMSs arrive at the mBS at the same time. However, signals of the mMSs reach at the Femtocell Base Stations (fBSs) with different delays, which may cause interference problems for femtocell users. For Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) based networks, interference due to delays larger than the cyclic prefix of the signals will appear as Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI).
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