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In data analysis and decision making the authors need frequently to judge whether the observed data items are normal or abnormal. This happens in banking, credit card use, diagnosing patient health state, fault detection in an engine or device like an off-shore oil platform or gearbox in an airplane motor. Sometimes the normal cases are boring and only the abnormal cases are of interest. In practice, it happens quite frequently that the normal state has a good representation, however the abnormal cases are rare and the abnormal class is ill-defined; in such a case they have to judge on the abnormality using information from the normal class only.
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