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Antenna-on-Chip (AoC) and Antenna-in-Package (AiP) solutions are studied for highly integrated millimeter-wave (mmWave) devices in wireless communications. First, the background, regulations, standard, and applications of 60-GHz wireless communications are briefly introduced. Then, highly integrated 60-GHz radios are overviewed as a basis for the link budget analysis to derive the antenna gain requirement. Next, in order to have deep physical insight into the AoC solution, the silicon substrate's high permittivity and low resistivity effects on the AoC efficiency are examined. It is shown that the AoC solution has low efficiency, less than 12% due to large ohmic losses and surface waves, which requires the development of techniques to improve the AoC efficiency.
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