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In recent years, the applications of wireless sensor networks have increased steadily. Sensor nodes are often scattered outdoors and their energy consumption depends heavily on the area of coverage and network topology. Many studies were focused on saving the energy of sensor nodes to maintain their functionality. This paper aims at extending the lifetime of a wireless sensor network by using cluster merging and dynamic routing mechanisms. Cluster merging can increase the number of sensor nodes in a cluster to balance its energy consumption; dynamic routing prevents the cluster heads from exhausting electric power by forwarding data through detoured routes.
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