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Network evolution towards self-aware autonomous adaptive networking attempts to overcome the inefficiency of configuring and managing networks, which leads to performance degradation. In order to optimize network operations, the introduction of self-awareness, self-management, and self-healing into the network was proposed. This created a new paradigm in networking, known as cognitive networking. This paper describes state-of-the-art, as well as future directions in cognitive networking. Fundamental techniques for enabling cognitive properties, such as, adaptation, learning, and goal optimization processes are detailed in this paper. A comparison of available research proposals leads to the design of a promising cognitive network architecture capable of incorporating cognitive network techniques.
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