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In open environments, such as mobile peer-to-peer systems, participants may need to access resources from unknown users. A critical security concern in such systems is the access of faulty resources, thereby wasting the requester's time and energy and possibly causing damage to her system. A common approach to mitigating the problem involves reputation mechanisms; however, since reputation relies on cooperation, a reputation mechanism's effectiveness can be significantly diminished in hostile environments. Reputation systems also require substantial communication among peers leading to: vulnerability to errors caused by intermittent connectivity; message delivery disruptions caused by malicious peers; and energy sapping message overheads.
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