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Extreme transistor technology scaling is causing increasing concerns in device reliability: the expected lifetime of individual transistors in complex chips is quickly decreasing, and the problem is expected to worsen at future technology nodes. With complex designs increasingly relying on Networks-on-Chip (NoCs) for on-chip data transfers, a NoC must continue to operate even in the face of many transistor failures. Specifically, it must be able to reconfigure and reroute packets around faults to enable continued operation, i.e., generate new routing paths to replace the old ones upon a failure. In addition to these reliability requirements, NoCs must maintain low latency and high throughput at very low area budget.
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