Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education Classrooms: The Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES)
Considerable research has been conducted examining the use of laptops in higher education, however, a reliable and valid scale to assess in-class use of laptops has yet to be developed. The purpose of the following study was to develop and evaluate the Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES). The scale consisted of four constructs: academic use and three areas of non-academic use (communication, watching movies, playing games). Tested on 177 higher education students, the data generated using the LES showed acceptable internal reliability, construct validity, content and convergent validity. Feedback from students suggested that both academic and non-academic constructs assessed by the LES could be expanded to incorporate a wider range of laptop related behaviour.