Date Added: Jan 2012
Localization of wireless sensor nodes has long been regarded as a problem that is difficult to solve, especially when considering characteristics of real-world environments. This paper formally describes, designs, implements, and evaluates a novel localization system called Spotlight. The system uses spatiotemporal properties of well-controlled events in the network, light in this case, to obtain locations of sensor nodes. Performance of the system is evaluated through deployments of Mica2 and XSM motes in an outdoor environment, where 20 cm localization error is achieved. A sensor network consisting of any number of nodes deployed in a 2;500 m2 area can be localized in under 10 minutes. Sub-meter localization error in an outdoor environment is made possible without equipping the wireless sensor nodes with specialized ranging hardware.