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This paper considers a strengthened formulation that requires the decoder to estimate both the message and the location of the codeword exactly. Such a scheme allows for transmitting data bits in the synchronization phase of the communication, thereby improving bandwidth and energy efficiencies. It is shown that the capacity region remains unchanged under the exact synchronization requirement. Furthermore, asynchronous capacity can be achieved by universal (channel independent) codes. Comparisons with earlier results on another (delay compensated) definition of rate are made.
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