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The demand for high speed wireless communication systems has made it necessary to move to millimeter wave frequencies. Device scaling in CMOS technologies has enabled low cost communications systems in the unlicensed 57-64 GHz frequency band. However, the path loss at these frequencies becomes severe as the effective antenna area scales proportionally with the square of wavelength to maintain omni-directional operation. Thus, use of arrayed antennas providing adaptive beamforming becomes very important. Millimeter wave frequencies highly favor use of beamforming because of small antenna element sizes and absence of multi-path effects.
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