Automatic Detection of Defects in Applications Without Test Oracles

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In application domains that do not have a test oracle, such as machine learning and scientific computing, quality assurance is a challenge because it is difficult or impossible to know in advance what the correct output should be for general input. Previously, metamorphic testing has been shown to be a simple yet effective technique in detecting defects, even without an oracle. In metamorphic testing, the application's "Metamorphic properties" are used to modify existing test case input to produce new test cases in such a manner that, when given the new input, the new output can easily be computed based on the original output.