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General-purpose middleware solutions, by definition, cannot readily support domain-specific semantics without significant manual efforts in specializing the middleware. This paper presents GRAFT (GeneRative Aspects for Fault Tolerance), which is a model-driven, generative, and aspects-based approach to specialize general-purpose middleware with failure handling and recovery semantics imposed by a domain. Model-driven techniques are used to specify the special fault tolerance requirements, which are then transformed into middleware-level code artifacts using generative programming. Since the resulting fault tolerance semantics often crosscut the middleware architecture, GRAFT uses aspect-oriented programming to weave them into the original fabric of the general-purpose middleware.
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