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This paper develops a general theoretical framework within which a heterogeneous group taxpayers confront a market that supplies a variety of schemes for reducing tax liability, and uses this framework to explore the impact of a wide range of anti-avoidance policies. Schemes differ in their legal effectiveness and hence in the risks to which they expose taxpayers - risks which go beyond the risk of audit considered in the conventional literature on evasion. Given the individual taxpayer's circumstances, the prices charged for the schemes and the policy environment, the model predicts whether or not any given taxpayer will acquire a scheme, and if they do so, which type of scheme they will acquire.
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