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More and more devices are becoming wirelessly connected. Many of these devices are operating in crowded unlicensed bands, where different wireless technologies compete for the same spectrum. A typical example is the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4 GHz, which is used by IEEE 802.11bgn, IEEE 802.15.4, and IEEE 802.15.1, among others. Each of these technologies implements appropriate Media Access Control (MAC) mechanisms to avoid packet collisions and optimize Quality of Service. Although, different technologies use similar MAC mechanisms, they are not always compatible. For example, all CSMA/CA-based technologies use Clear Channel Assessment (CCA) to detect when the channel is free; however, in each case it is specifically designed to improve detection reliability of the specific technology.
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