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Cognitive Radio (CR) is a technology to implement opportunistic spectrum sharing to improve the spectrum utilization. However, there exists a hidden-node problem, which can be a big challenge to solve especially when the primary receiver is passive listening. The authors aim to provide a solution to the hidden-node problem for passive-listening receiver based on cooperation of multiple CRs. Specifically, they consider a cooperative GPS-enabled cognitive network. Once the existence of PU is detected, a localization algorithm will be employed to first estimate the path loss model for the environment based on backpropagation method and then to locate the position of PU.
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