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A fundamental problem of Internet traffic engineering is bandwidth estimation: determining the bandwidth (bits/sec) required to carry traffic with a specific bit rate (bits/sec) offered to an Internet link and satisfy quality-of-service requirements. The traffic is packets of varying sizes arriving for transmission on the link. Packets can queue up and are dropped if the queue size (bits) is bigger than the size of the buffer (bits) for the queue. For the predominant traffic on the Internet, best-effort traffic, quality metrics are the packet loss (fraction of lost packets), a queueing delay (sec), and the delay probability (probability of a packet exceeding the delay).
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