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Most of the previous work on network coding has assumed that the users are not selfish and always follow the designed coding schemes. However, recent results have shown that selfish users do not have the incentive to participate in inter-session network coding in a static non-cooperative game setting. As a result, the worst-case network efficiency (i.e., the price-of-anarchy) can be as low as 22%. In this paper, the authors show that if the same game is played repeatedly, then the price-of-anarchy can be significantly improved to 48%. They propose a grim-trigger strategy that encourages users to cooperate and participate in the inter-session network coding.
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