Date Added: Jan 2013
A wide variety of systems require reliable personal recognition schemes to either confirm or determine the identity of an individual requesting their services. The purpose of such schemes is to ensure that the rendered services are accessed only by a legitimate user, and not anyone else. Examples of such applications include secure access to buildings, computer systems, laptops, cellular phones and ATMs. Despite of a high number of techniques specifically dedicated to bioinformatics problems as well as many successful applications, the authors are in the beginning of a process to massively integrate the aspects and experiences in the different core subjects such as biology, medicine, computer science, engineering, and mathematics.