Blind Detection of Spread Spectrum Flow Watermarks

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Executive Summary

Recently, the Direct Sequence Spread-Spectrum (DSSS)-based technique has been proposed to trace anonymous network flows. In this technique, homogeneous Pseudo-Noise (PN) codes are used to modulate multiple-bit signals that are embedded into the target flow as watermarks. This technique could be maliciously used to degrade an anonymous communication network. In this paper, the authors propose a simple single flow-based scheme to detect the existence of these watermarks. The investigation shows that even if they have no knowledge of the applied PN code, they are still able to detect malicious DSSS watermarks via Mean-Square AutoCorrelation (MSAC) of a single modulated flow's traffic rate time series.

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