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This paper investigates the impact of delayed Channel State Information at the Transmitter (CSIT) on the MIMO broadcast channel with Block Diagonalization (BD) pre-coding. First, an upper bound for the achievable throughput is provided, which shows that BD is more robust to imperfect CSIT than zero-forcing pre-coding as it has fewer inter-user interfering streams. Due to residual inter-user interference, the throughput of BD still saturates at high SNR, which motivates switching between single-user and multi-user pre-coding. An accurate closed-form approximation is derived for the achievable throughput of the BD system, which provides guidance on the preferred transmission technique for a given scenario.
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