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Ontology is the key ingredient of semantic Web service technologies, which support systematic management of Web services, such as automatic service discovery, service composition, and change management. It is crucial and challenging to reduce the human efforts for developing ontologies. The authors propose a bottom-up approach that bootstraps operation-level service ontologies from WSDL descriptions. The approach leverages the techniques of information retrieval and machine learning. The relevance and similarity between Web services are measured based on the WSDL descriptions.
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