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Implementation bugs are a highly critical problem in wide-area networks. The software running on core routers is subject to vulnerabilities, coding mistakes, and misconfiguration. Unfortunately, these problems are often found after deployment in live networks, where they lead to outages, make networks prone to attack, and involve a challenging process to localize and debug. This paper proposes a bug-tolerant router that runs multiple diverse copies of router software in parallel, such that each copy is unlikely to fail at the same time as the others. Diversity is achieved by varying the ordering and timing of routing messages, running different routing protocols, running code written by different implementers, etc.
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