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The authors address issues related to privacy protection in Location-Based Services (LBS). Most existing research in this field either requires a trusted third-party or uses oblivious protocols which are computationally and communicationally expensive. The design of privacy-preserving techniques is principled on not requiring a trusted third-party while being highly efficient in terms of time and space complexities. The problem has two interesting and challenging characteristics: First, the degree of privacy protection and LBS accuracy depends on the context, such as population and road density, around a user's location. Second, an adversary may violate a user's location privacy in two ways: Based on the user's location information contained in the LBS query payload, and by inferring a user's geographical location based on its device's IP address.
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