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In this paper, towards improving spatial reuse in a cellular network, the authors consider augmenting it with wireless ad hoc connectivity. The coverage area of each base-station is reduced and the users that are within the area relay traffic to nodes outside the area; these users further relay data to more distant users within the cell. The resulting network is referred to as a hybrid network. While this approach can result in shorter range higher-rate links and improved spatial reuse which, together favor a capacity increase, it relies on multi-hop forwarding which is detrimental to the overall capacity.
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