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Counting the number of RFID tags (cardinality) is a fundamental problem for large-scale RFID systems. Not only does it satisfy some real application requirements, it also acts as an important aid for RFID identification. Due to the extremely long processing time, slotted ALOHA-based or tree-based arbitration protocols are often impractical for many applications, because tags are usually attached to moving objects and they may have left the reader's interrogation region before being counted. Recently, estimation schemes have been proposed to count the approximate number of tags. Most of them, however, suffer from two scalability problems: time inefficiency and multiple-reading. Without resolving these problems, large-scale RFID systems cannot easily apply the estimation scheme as well as the corresponding identification.
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