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Embedding pico/femto base-stations and relay nodes in a macro-cellular network is a promising method for achieving substantial gains in coverage and capacity compared to macro-only networks. These new types of base-stations can operate on the same wireless channel as the macro-cellular network, providing higher spatial reuse via cell splitting. However, these base-stations are deployed in an unplanned manner, can have very different transmit powers, and may not have traffic aggregation among many users. This could potentially result in much higher interference magnitude and variability.
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